Eye Anatomy: Understanding the Different Parts of Your Eye

Out of all five senses, our vision appears to be most important. Roughly 75% of the information we receive is visual. Our eyesight can also protect us from danger if other senses are not working. It’s no wonder why people consistently say that they value this mode of perception most – and fear losing their eyesight

As important as the eyes are, many people don’t understand their different parts and how they work. Today, we’d like to spend a few minutes breaking down the anatomy of the human eye and what makes this organ fascinating. 


The orbit is the bony socket of the skull where your eye sits. It contains muscles that allow the blood vessels, nerves and eyeballs to move. The lacrimal glands can also be found in the orbit, which are responsible for producing tears.


The conjunctiva is a thin layer of tissue that covers the front of the eye. It prevents bacteria and other foreign material from entering the eye. 


The sclera is the white part of the eye that you see when looking in the mirror. It’s tough and leather-like and extends around the back of the eye. The purpose of the sclera is to give your eyes their shape. 


The cornea is a thin, transparent layer that sits over the iris. Its purpose is to focus light as it enters the eye. 

Anterior, Posterior and Vitreous Chambers 

The anterior chamber is a fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris. The fluid inside the chamber is called aqueous humor. This fluid helps nourish the cornea and lens. 

The posterior chamber is also a fluid-filled space, but it’s located between the iris and lens. Finally, the vitreous chamber is positioned between the lens and back of the eye and helps keep the retina in place. 

Iris and Pupil

The iris is the colored part of the eye. It controls how much light enters the eye. There is a central opening in the iris called the pupil. Muscle fibers connect the pupil to the iris, which is how the pupil expands (dilates) and contracts. 


The lens is positioned behind the iris and pupil. It’s clear and flexible and works with other parts of the eye to focus light onto the retina. 


The retina  is often described as being the film for a camera. When light enters the retina, chemical reactions occur and create electrical signals. These signals are sent to the nerve cells and then to the optic nerve, which carries information to the brain. The brain processes this information to make it understandable. 

The eyes are pretty amazing, aren’t they? While you’re awake, your eyes are working hard to see and interact with your world. You only get one set, so be sure to treat them well! If you haven’t scheduled an appointment with your eye doctor in Brooklyn NY, be sure to do so.